# Author: Circuit Design

We have designing Experience for the last 40 years.

In this tutorial we are going to learn about HOW TO CALCULATE VOLTAGE DROP IN CIRCUIT?

As per below image of circuit have one battery & two resistor R1 & R2 connected in series

As per circuit first we need to calculate the total resistance.

Series resistance formula:

RT = R1+ R2

RT = 2 + 3

RT = 5 E

As per Ohm’s Law Formula:

I = V / RT

V = I RT

20 = I 5

I = 20/5 = 4A

Now first we will calculate the voltage drop across the R1.

V1 = IXR1

V1 = 4 X 2 = 8 V

Now first we will calculate the voltage drop across the R2.

V2 = 4 X 3 = 12 V

As per new circuit if three resistor are connected in series.

As per new circuit if three resistor are connected in series.

Series resistance formula:

RT = R1+ R2 + R3

RT = 3 + 4 + 5

RT = 12 E

As per Ohm’s Law Formula:

I = V / RT

V = I RT

36 = I 12

I = 36/12 = 3A

Now first we will calculate the voltage drop across the R1.

V1 = IXR1

V1 = 5 X 3 = 15 V

Now first we will calculate the voltage drop across the R2.

V2 = 4 X 3 = 12 V

Now we will calculate the voltage drop across the R3.

V2 = 3 X 3 = 9 V

In this tutorial we are going to learn about HOW TO CALCULATE CURRENT?

As per below image of circuit one resistor R1 connected in series & Two resistor R2, R3 are connected in parallel .

As per Ohm’s Law Formula:

I = V / RT

As per circuit first we need to calculate the total resistance.

Parallel resistance formula:

Rp = R2 X R3 / R2 + R3

Rp = 20 X 30 / 50

Rp = 12 E

Now we will calculate the total resistance as per series resistance formula .
RT = R1 + RP
RT = 10 + 12 = 22 E
Now we will calculate the current as per OHM’s Law.
I = V / RT
I = 9 / 22 = 0.409 A

In this tutorial we are going to learn about HOW TO CALCULATE CAPACITOR VALUE ?

Always we take the value of Capacitor Value in Microfarad.
For example we have some devices for our uses which we have specification is 80W.
For microfarad we need to KVAR value from device.
Now we have our device capacity is
Device – 80W
Volt- 240 V
Power Factor – 0.90
Here is formula for KVA is = KW/PF
0.08/0.9 = 0.089 KVA
Always KVA depend on PF & W.
KVAR = KVA X √1-(PF X PF)
= 0.089 X √1-(0.9X0.9)
= 0.089 X √1-(0.81)
= 0.089 X √19
= 0.089 X 0.4359
= 0.03875 KVAR
Now have KVAR value so that we can convert KVAR to uF.
Capacitor (uF) = KVAR X 106 / 2 X π X V2 X Hz
= 0.03875 X 106 / 2 X 3.143 X 240 X 240 X 50
= 38750 X 106 / 18103680
= 0.00214 X K
= 0.00214X1000 = 2.14 uF

In this tutorial we are going to learn about HOW TO CALCULATE BATTERY CHARGING TIME & CURRENT?

Mostly in our home we use the battery capacity of inverter is 120AH, 150AH & 220AH.
For Charging Time of battery formula :
TC = AH/A
HERE IS.
TC – TIME IN HOUR
AH – AMPERE HOUR RATING OF BATTERY
A – CURRENT IN AMPERE
Suppose that we have battery 120AH with 12V.
We should take the 10% of charging current of battery capacity .
its means charging current is
A = 120 x 10/100= 12 A
but we will take some rises current is minimum +1A or 2A
so now it will be 12A+1A= 13A
Now we have charging current is 13A
TC = AH/A
TC = 120/13 = 9.23 Hrs
but always minimum 40% losses in charging time so we ll increase 40% in total capacity of battery .
So total Ah will be 120+40%
120 x 40/100 = 168AH
Now we will calculate actual charging time of battery .
TC = AH/A
168/13 = 12.92Hrs
Approx 13 Hrs
SO here is we found total hour for charging time for 120AH battery capacity should be minimum 13 Hrs.

In this tutorial we are going to learn about WHY USE PULL UP & PULL DOWN RESISTOR ?

As per showing image of digital system level 1 or 0, these 1 or 0 is either input & output is determined by logic level.

The logic level is nothing but the voltage range which decides how an input or output in a digital circuit interpreted either as a 0 or 1.

Here is many types of logic families .

1. TTL
2. CMOS
3. DTL
4. RTL
5. ECL

Each of the logic families are operate at different voltage level as per below image .

Please see the below image of TTL logic family operation .

For a TTL Logic +5 VCC

5- 2V – “1”

0- 0.8V – “0”

0.9- 1.9V – “X”

In TTL logic family Input voltage range for logic “1” must be operated voltage range is 2V to 5V .

Input voltage range for for logic “o” must be operated voltage range is 0 to 0.8 V .

Input voltage range for for logic “Indeterminate” must be operated voltage range is 0.8V to 2V .

In this tutorial we are going to learn about WHAT IS PULL UP & PULL DOWN RESISTOR ?

These resistor that are use in digital circuit to pull the voltage level & digital input equal to the VCC or to the GND.

As per showing below image for pull up resistor . R1 & R2 is pull up resistor to the pull UP the voltage & input pin nearly to the VCC .

As per showing below image for pull down resistor . R1 & R2 is pull down resistor to the pull down the voltage & input pin nearly to the GND or 0 . Hence input pin connect to GND .

In this tutorial we are going to learn about What is the use of Coupling and Decoupling Capacitor in Circuit?

Every Power supply have fluctuating in nature.

So that We use the coupling capacitor to prevent the digital pin, Always Capacitor should be connect parallel with power supply . Electrolyte Capacitor should be near to Power Supply & Ceramic Capacitor near IC the chips.

On the other hand coupling capacitor should be path in circuit for low frequency & to Remove DC noise .This is mostly use in Amplifier & High Speed Circuit .

Value of Capacitor depend of the Frequency which need to Circuit.

In this tutorial we are going to learn about R-L Circuit Without Source

In this tutorial we are going to learn about Hardware Design Engineer CV

(Hardware Designer- Six-Sigma Certified)

Mobile: +91 ——— Email: ——–@gmail.com

Objective:

To integrate the professional qualification, skills and work experience in Electrical and Power Electronics Hardware design (R&D / Product Development) with my personal interest for a challenging work ultimately leading to the value additions to achieve the organization Goal.

Career Experience :
No. of years of explored experience with expertise in design, verification, validation and design review for Power Electronics Projects and Embedded in Consumer, Automobile, Industrial, Solar and Automation Domain.
Strong hand on experience of designing of AC/DC and DC/DC low power and high power converters, LED drivers.
Complete product development life cycle from requirement analysis to development plan, design input, output, review, verification, validation to control documentation.
Skills to meet EMI-EMC and environmental compliance of products.
Analog, digital and mixed signal circuit design
Team management, interaction with purchase, marketing, customer support and clients, complete product life cycle.
A keen and enthusiastic communicator endowed with strong leadership, team-working, analytical, logical and organizational skills.

Skills Set:
Technical Skills :

DC-DC Switch mode solar charger – PWM and MPPT, DC-DC converter for LED lights CC & CV mode, Linear Power Supply Design, PFC controlled SMPS Design, Embedded Hardware designing, Analog and Digital Circuit designing, Signal Conditioning and Monitoring, Schematic Design, PCB Layout Guideline, Algorithm Design for firmware, EMI-EMC compliances.
Software Tools -ORCAD, Multisim (PSpice), Keil Uvision, MPLAB-X compilers, Embedded C programming, RS Logix500 (Ladder programming), RSView32 (SCADA), INTOUCH (SCADA).
1)H/W Tools & Test Equipment DSO, Function Generator, Logic Analyzer, Multimeters , LCR Meter, Electronic Load, Power Supplies and various panel meters. Well familiar with manual and Dip soldering.
2) Components Handled Well familiar with all types of Electronics/Electrical Components and Accessories, SMD or thru- holes components.

KEY FUNCTIONAL AREA :
1) Custom Power Supply Design, Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS), Linear Power Supplies, High Voltage Power Supplies
2) Low Noise Analog Design and Low Noise Power Supplies
3) Analog Circuits design
4) High Frequency Magnetics
5) Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design and Layout for Power Supplies
6) Power Supply Circuit Simulation using SPICE and other Simulators
Prototyping, Troubleshooting and Failure Mode Analysis
7) Electromagnetic Compatibility and meet the standards as per Industries & Testing
Handling various technical aspects like Product Documentation, Schematic capture, component selection, BOM creation, Gerber verification, Layout guideline, BOM costing, monitoring critical paths and taking appropriate actions.
8) Hardware design for Interfacing of Micro Controllers, RTC, Memory chips, LED drivers, USB, EEPROM, Flash Device, SD/MMC Card and communication interface like RS232, SPI, I2C etc.
9) Sensors interfacing hardware design for pressure, temperature, Humidity, Touch, motion etc.
10) Selection of components based upon quality, performance and cost effectively by implementing with all types of Vendors and suppliers.
11) Verification and validation of design, sub-assembly and system level.
System/product validation (EMI-EMC, Environmental and IP test standard) and certification approval from third party’s laboratories (MNRE, ETDC, etc).

Company Experience :
Company Name —–
Company Profile

Designation Joined as — (R&D), Date Month Year
Projects working upon:
DC power supply 0-50V, 5A.
Grain moisture testing instrument.
Controller for Pouch packing machine.
Accountability :
1) Ferrites and Iron core based transformer and inductor Design.
2) Analog and Digital Circuit Design
3) PCB Guideline for microcontroller, Power Supply and other control or interfacing cards Design up to 2-layers.
4) Card and system level Communication Design level like RS232, SPI and I2C.
Component level interfacing like Memories, EEPROM, EPROM, RTC, LCDs, Keypads using with standard hardware protocol TTL, SPI, I2C, UART.
5) Complete design and development documentation (Complete development cycle to product control)
ISO (9001:2008) Audit, Partially supporting to customer support.
Personal Details :

In this tutorial we are going to learn about What is Transients ?

Transients are present in the network when the network is having any storage element. Since
1) Inductor does not allow sudden change of current and inductor stores energy in the form of magnetic field. Since
2) Capacitor does not allow sudden change of voltage and capacitor store energy in the form of electric field.
When the network is having only resistive element, no transient are present in the network. Since resistor allows sudden change of current and voltage , It does not store any energy .