## What is ESD & How to Protect it?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about What is ESD & How to Protect it? ESD – Electro Static Discharge is the transfer of electrical charge between 2 bodies at different potentials, either through direct contact or through an induced electrical field. This definition is observed as a …

## Guideline for PCB Footprint for SMD Components

In this tutorial we are going to learn about Guideline for PCB Footprint for SMD Components SMD PAD GEOMETRIES Generally manufacturer part vendors and assembly vendors be contacted for design recommendations. Or part manufacturing DATA SHEET (Specification sheet) the nominal dimensions of components will be used to design pad geometries. …

## What is Counter & Its Working?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is counter and Its working? Counter: – It is a device used to count the number of pulses & It can also be used as frequency divider. Counter can count in two ways i.e. Up count ( 0,1,2,—–N) and down …

## What is an Oscillator & Its types?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is an Oscillator? Oscillator – A circuit produce oscillation without input signal. An oscillator can generate Square wave, Sine wave and triangle wave. As per below circuit an amplifier connected with positive feedback (β) then it become oscillator, here amplifier …

## What is SMT Technology & Its Process?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is SMT Technology & Its Process? SMT Technology: Surface Mount technology (SMT) ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface-mount_technology ) is a technology all SMD components are mounted on surface at board with automatic method is called SMT technology. Nowadays largely replaced the through hole …

## What is working of Level Shifter Circuit?

In this tutorial we are going to learn about what is working of level shifter circuit? Level Shifter Function: This is common collector configuration basically, when we give the input which DC only at base terminal and output that is given at output terminal, In input has non zero DC …